QUALITY

 

Sustainable Development and Environmental Sensitivity

 

The initial planning for this project included attention to principles of sustainable development and environmental sensitivity. The intent was to conserve water and non-renewable energy, reduce sedimentation and soil erosion, enhance work environments, provide a pleasant aspect to the community and generally to model the type of new development that is contemplated in the Comprehensive Plan and Land Use Management Ordinance.

 

In the table in Attachment 2 we describe those elements and note in which of the four concept plans they have been included:

 

Quality Reductions Needed to Cut Costs

We have found that reductions in quantity sufficient to meet the fixed cost criterion would be so extreme that the functions of the Public Works Department could not be accommodated in a reasonably efficient and effective manner. We cannot recommend spending as much as $20,000,000 for a facility that would need to be expanded as soon as it is occupied.

 

Therefore, in order to supplement the reductions noted above in quantity, we reviewed the elements of quality.We believe that the changes we identify here are not consistent with the Councilís values of sustainable development and environmental sensitivity.We list them reluctantly, but we believe that they would be necessary to meet a fixed cost of $20,000,000.

 

Instead of building an exemplary stormwater management system with the most up-to-date best management practices (BMPís), we would use only rain gardens, open ditches and wet ponds. The loss of the BMPís would hurt the public education program that we are required to conduct as part of our National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II permit. More detail is provided in the table.

 

Other proposed changes in quality relate to roads and parking: there would be gravel on parking areas for employees and visitors, and gravel on the access drive to the materials storage area north of the creek. Improvements to Millhouse Road would include a 30í roadway width instead of 36í and a ditch section along the west side instead of curb and gutter.However, the left turn lane at the intersection with Eubanks Road, however, would remain.

 

Another proposed change is the use of a slightly customized standard pre-engineered metal buildings for the fleet maintenance, field operations and building maintenance building. We cannot recommend use of the most basic such building. Because of the constant presence of heavy equipment and large vehicles around the interior and exterior of these three buildings, the most basic metal building would need to be upgraded, at additional cost, to include masonry walls.

 

Although the site plan was designed and buildings sited to accommodate daylighting, the low-sloped roofs of pre-engineered metal buildings would preclude the use of the roof monitors necessary for daylighting.The additional cost for custom roof profiles could not be included in the $20 million plan.The standard dimensions and simple shapes of pre-engineering metal buildings would limit design flexibility.Although the materials would meet minimum building code standards, we believe that the standard metal buildings would be less durable and would have a shorter life span than would conventional construction.

 

Conventional construction, as opposed to pre-engineered metal buildings, could accommodate daylighting and would be flexible enough to accommodate all functions efficiently and to facilitate future expansions.However, the extra cost could not be included and still meet the goal of $20 million.

 

In addition, we considered ďhigh performanceĒ buildings, which include techniques, systems and components meant to minimize the use of non-renewable energy, water and life cycle costs.Our design is not far enough along to be able to specify the inclusion of such specific high performance building elements as photo-voltaic cells, solar hot water panels and geothermal heating and cooling; however, a part of the square foot cost had been allocated for this use.This allocation has been subtracted.

 

Instead of purchasing non-standard site lighting for the public areas, standard fixtures would be rented from Piedmont Electric on a per fixture per month basis, thus reducing initial capital costs.The bunker walls in the outdoor materials storage area would be reinforced concrete block instead of the more durable poured-in-place concrete.

 

Finally, instead of exemplary landscaping as requested by the neighbors and recommended by the Community Design Commission, this proposal includes funding sufficient for only the minimum landscaping required by the Land Use Management Ordinance.

 

OPTIONS

 

We understand that the Council wishes to see what could be built if the budget were reduced to about $20,000,000.In order to better illustrate the impact of this reduced budget, we provide below an itemized list of elements which were deleted to meet the budget target and which could also be seen as potential additions.We also include the projected costs and the impacts of each.

 

We caution that the cost projections made at this early stage of planning cannot be precise.As design is refined, cost estimates can also be refined.Also, the smaller the element of the total project for which costs are estimated, the greater the risk of inaccuracy.

 

These costs include 5% for design contingency; 5% for construction contingency for buildings and 10% construction contingency for site work; furniture and fixtures, except for office furniture; 6% for inflation; 10% for design, value engineering and testing; and 1% for public art.We have also included notes on the impact on operations and other concerns.


 

POTENTIAL CHANGES TO $20 MILLION PLAN

 

ITEM

PROJECTED

PRICE

RECOM-

MENDED

NOW

DEFER

NOT

RECOM-

MENDED

Add standard asphalt surface course to employee and visitor parking.

Would reduce recurring maintenance costs and improve use during snow and ice storms by the employees most crucial to the Townís response to such storms.(Gravel cannot be effectively plowed.) Would reduce dust in and around nearby buildings and would avoid mud and dust for visitors and employees.

 

38,600

  •  

 

 

 

Add asphalt surface to the access roadway to the materials storage and impound lot.

Would reduce recurring maintenance costs caused by frequent use by heavy equipment and trucks.Asphalt pavement would avoid dust that would be a problem during dry weather for the equipment (air filters, etc.), employees and possibly nearby residents. Pavement would also improve the ability to use the road during snow and ice storms. (Gravel cannot be effectively plowed.)

 

 

13,530

 

  •  

 

 

Add allowance for additional landscaping.

Would help to respond to neighborsí expressed concerns for enhanced buffering, and address comments of the Community Design Commission during its courtesy reviews in June and October. Would provide for some larger initial plantings to more quickly screen and shade parking lots; and would provide an example of the Townís expectations of new development.

 

96,600

  •  

 

 

Add permeable asphalt pavement to employee and visitor parking instead of standard asphalt paving.

Would reduce recurring maintenance costs and improve use during snow and ice storms by the employees most crucial to the Townís response to such storms.(Gravel cannot be effectively plowed.) Would reduce dust in and around nearby buildings and would avoid mud and dust for visitors and employees.

 

51,500

 

 

 

Add underground rainwater re-use tanks for irrigation and flushing toilets.

Would reduce stormwater run-off and erosion, conserve water and reduce water bills.

 

257,750

  •  

 

 

Use poured-in-place concrete instead of block for bunker walls.

Would provide a more durable wall that would better withstand typical bumps from trucks, fork lifts and buckets of heavy equipment. Our experience suggests that, in addition to more maintenance over the years, the block walls would need to be rebuilt once or twice during the life of the facility.

 

111,340

 

  •  

 

Add non-standard site lighting in public area.

Would reduce operating costs and enhance appearance around public parking lot and building entrances.

 

215,030

 

 

  •  

Increase pavement width on Millhouse Road from 30í to 36í.

Would provide improved cross-section that could accommodate two four-foot bike lanes rather than wide outside lanes.Regardless, left-turn lane at intersection with Eubanks Road would remain.

 

25,775

 

 

  •  

Add curb and gutter to west side of Millhouse Road, along railroad.

Would provide symmetrical cross-section that meets the Townís standard, would protect the edge of the pavement from premature failures, and would reduce the cost of ditch maintenance and street cleaning.

 

22,550

  •  

 

 

Use standard construction instead of pre-engineered metal buildings with masonry walls.

Would allow the design flexibility to accommodate the clerestories and skylights necessary for daylighting, which reduces energy use and improves working conditions; and, would allow more flexibility to accommodate specific functional requirements. More durable materials would likely result in lower maintenance costs and a longer life.

 

575,540

  •  

 

 

Use pre-engineered metal buildings with daylighting and masonry walls.

Modifications to the standard metal buildings would remove almost all of the cost savings, but would not remove the lack of flexibility to accommodate programmed functions and future expansions and the lower durability and shorter life.

 

55,144

 

 

  •  

Add allowance for high performance building elements.

Would include such elements as geothermal heating/cooling, solar panels, photovoltaic cells,reused and recycled materials, etc. and would follow the Triangle J High Performance Building Guidelines as originally intended.

 

417,810

  •  

 

 

Add compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling system.

Would allow the continued expansion of Townís fleet of CNG-fueled vehicles.There are presently 11 such vehicles. This system would allow us to begin offering CNG fuel to outside fuel customers such as those listed elsewhere, thus encouraging wider use and, subsequently, a better supply network.Grant funding may be available; various types of appropriate grants are available from time to time.

 

496,370

  •  

 

 

Add building area to house automatic wash bay and associated equipment.

Installation of light vehicle wash with water re-use system would save staff time and money, because use of off-site commercial car washes and washing on-site with a hose could be eliminated.Safety would be improved by eliminating hand washing outdoors, particularly in wet and freezing weather. Vehicles would be kept cleaner, extending the vehicleís life and improving the public image of the Town.

 

477,990

  •  

 

 

Include Public Housing Maintenance space in Internal Services Buildings building and add paved parking.

Operational efficiency of public housing maintenance would improve. Inclusion here would provide better space for parts and materials storage and fabrication than does the present space, which is partly in a small rebuilt house and partly in the administrative office building a couple of blocks away. Functional space would decrease costs through more efficient use of staff time, ability to keep necessary materials and equipment on hand. Debt service costs could be paid by HUD Capital Grant funds, which would otherwise go toward Public Housing renovations.

 

 

1,131,740

  •  

 

 

Add two fueling stations and canopy.

Grading and site work would accommodate the addition of these stations at a later date. No change is contemplated in the number and size of tanks, including a tank for E-85 ethanol.

  • Additional fueling stations would reduce waiting time, thus improving†††††operating efficiencies.

These fuel lines would also enhance our ability to continue serving a growing list of outside public fuel customers with both gasoline and alternative fuels, including OWASA, Orange County Landfill, Recycling and Emergency Management Services; Carolina Air Care; UNC Recycling, Public Safety, House-keeping, Animal Labs and Central Receiving; and, UNC Hospital Bus Service.

 

221,490

 

  •  

 

Include Information Technology space and add 16 standard asphalt parking spaces for Information Technology Department.

Would allow for special construction to protect centralized equipment for entire Town, and allow for Director of department to be located in the same building as the Emergency Operations Center.Would also free up some space in Town Hall.

 

595,000

 

 

  •  

Move Solid Waste area back to Fleet Building, add back 2í to width of repair bays, restore space to parts storage, warehousing and total locker room space.

Pedestrian traffic would be exposed to less vehicular traffic between Operations Building and solid waste trucks.Parts storage and warehousing capacity would remain sufficient longer, there would be more space and flexibility in repair bays and there would be less congestion in the single menís locker room in the Operations Building.

 

972,260

 

 

  •  

 

Other Cost Savings

We have been able to save costs in other ways. We include them simply to illustrate how the projected price has been reduced.

 

a.†††††††† Revisions to site work†††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† ††††† $257,750

Savings due largely to buildings being closer together, allowing decrease in clearing and grubbing, storm drainage piping, earthwork, asphalt paving, etc.

 

 

b.†††††††† Deletion of railroad crossing and signals on Millhouse Road†††††††† ††††††††††† ††††† $161,100

 

NCDOT Small Project grant is available for this project.Half the cost is deducted from the Public Works cost and the other half from the Transportation facility.

 

d.†††††††† Reduction in cost of new gravity sewer line†††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† †††††† $ 32,220

 

Half the cost is deducted from the Public Works cost and the other half from the Transportation facility cost.Change is due to more refined design and cost estimation.

e.†††††††† Reduction in cost of relocation††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††† ††††††††$ 56,000

 

A more detailed estimate suggests a lower cost.

 

We also note that the cost of the 15 Year Plan has been reduced since it was presented on September 8 by about $600,000 to reflect additional work in design that uncovered a double-counting error in cost estimation.

 

NEXT STEPS

 

The Town must vacate its present site at Horace Williams in three years and two months.Therefore, we recommend that these next steps be taken immediately.

 

The following resolutions would establish a preliminary budget.The project ordinance would be adopted when bids have been received and financing arrangements completed.

 

With the guidance established by the decisions made tonight, the design team would proceed to prepare the Special Use Permit application.†† The first regulatory steps would be review of the concept plan by the Town Council at its November 17 public hearing, including comments made by the Community Design Commission in its review on October 22.

 

Work on design drawings and bid documents would continue even while the Special Use Permit process is underway. We believe that the work can be done concurrently because of the early guidance of the Council.Our goal is to have construction work begin by early 2005.If a separate grading contract is let, that should begin by late 2004.Such a schedule could allow the completion of the Town Operations Center in time to complete the move to the new site and demolition of all improvements on the present site by December 31, 2006.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

 

We have considered the need to limit the costs of this project and tried to balance capital cost against the need for a functional operations center and the need to follow the Councilís values of sustainable development, environmental sensitivity and fiscal prudence.The reductions in developed space would require expansions in about 15 years instead of about 30 years, but we believe that the resulting concept plan would still represent fiscal prudence.

 

We have also tried to balance cost against the value of following the goals and objectives of the Comprehensive Plan and also of providing an example to private developers of the best in high performance building technology, the latest in stormwater management and the best in neighbor-friendly buffering.We urge developers to go beyond the minimum required in these areas, and this is an opportunity for the Town to set a good example.

 

Finally, we have tried to balance cost with the more difficult to define issues of operational efficiency and staff morale.Efficient interior traffic flow and space for sufficient storage of material, equipment and tools save time and increase safety.Crew rooms that can accommodate complete staff groups allow for better training, scheduling and communications among the employees in each program area.Locker rooms with showers, a place to eat lunch and paved employee parking areas can enhance employee morale and, if insufficient, be a constant irritant and time-waster.

 

We understand that the balances struck among these values are judgments with which the Council may or may not agree.Therefore, we have provided a resolution which could be amended as the Town Council sees fit.

 

We have included space for the maintenance division of the Housing Department in the recommended plan and preliminary budget, because it needs functional space, it could share some space efficiently with the building maintenance function of Public Works, and the debt service on the $1,120,400 could be paid over the years by part of our grants from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The $20 million plan also deletes completely the space for the housing maintenance function of the Housing Department.

 

We recommend that the following items be accommodated in the preliminary budget for the Public Works Operations Facility:

 

1.†††††††† Add permeable asphalt pavement to employee and visitor parking

††††††††††† instead of a gravel surface †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 90,200

2.†††††††† Use standard construction instead of pre-engineered metal buildings

††††††††††† with masonry walls to accommodate daylighting and program†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 575,500

3.†††††††† Add allowance for high performance building elements††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 417,800

4.†††††††† Add underground rainwater re-use tanks for irrigation and flushing

toilets.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 257,800

5.†††††††† Add compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling system†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 496,400

6.†††††††† Add curb and gutter to west side of Millhouse Road, along railroad††††††††††††††††††††† ††† 22,600

7.†††††††† Add allowance for additional landscaping†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††96,700

8.†††††††† Add asphalt surface to roadway to materials storage and impound lot†††††††††††††††††† ††13,500

9.†††††††† Add building area to house brushless wash bay and equipment††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 478,000

 

TOTAL recommended additions to minimum Public Works area†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $2,448,500

 

TOTAL recommended preliminary budget for Public Works area††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $23,158,500

 

 

10.†††††† Include Public Housing Maintenance space in Internal Services

††††††††††† Building and add paved parking (to be paid by HUD grants)††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $1,120,400

 

TOTAL Recommended Preliminary Budget for Public Works/Public

Housing area (after refund of $540,700 in sales tax) †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $23,738,000

 

 

The adoption of Resolution A would authorize a preliminary budget for the Public Works Operations Facility of $23,738,000 after refund of $540,700 in sales tax.

 

The adoption of Resolution B would authorize a preliminary budget for the Public Works Operations Facility of $20,275,000 after refund of $460,000 in sales tax.If the Council wishes to amend either resolution, we recommend that you do so at the meeting.

 

ATTACHMENTS

 

  1. Comparison of Public Works Operations Facility Projected Costs (p. 20).

2.†† Comparison of Elements of Sustainable Development and Environmental Sensitivity Among Four Plans (p. 21).

3.†† Existing Public Works Facility, photos (p. 23).

 


RESOLUTION A

 

A RESOLUTION ESTABLISHING A PRELIMINARY BUDGET FOR THE PUBLIC WORKS FACILITY IN THE TOWN OPERATIONS CENTER (2003-10-27/R-11a)

 

WHEREAS, the Town must relocate its two largest departments, Public Works and Transportation, by December 31, 2006; and

 

WHEREAS, the Town of Chapel Hill has acquired an 88-acre site for a Town Operations Center on Millhouse Road; and

 

WHEREAS, a needs assessment, site analysis, and preliminary concept plan have been developed; and

 

WHEREAS, the Council considered on June 23, 2003, the preliminary concept plan and the initial cost projections; and

 

WHEREAS, the Council considered on September 8, 2003, revised concept plans and revised cost projections; and

 

WHEREAS, the Council has considered potential cost reductions, additional identified costs and potential revenues;

 

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED by the Council of the Town of Chapel Hill that a preliminary budget for the Public Works portion of the Town Operations Center of $23,738,000 after refund of $540,700in sales tax, is hereby adopted.

 

This the 27th day of October, 2003.

 


RESOLUTION B

 

A RESOLUTION ESTABLISHING A PRELIMINARY BUDGET FOR THE PUBLIC WORKS FACILITY IN THE TOWN OPERATIONS CENTER (2003-10-27/R-11b)

 

WHEREAS, the Town must relocate its two largest departments, Public Works and Transportation, by December 31, 2006; and

 

WHEREAS, the Town of Chapel Hill has acquired an 88-acre site for a Town Operations Center on Millhouse Road; and

 

WHEREAS, a needs assessment, site analysis, and preliminary concept plan have been developed; and

 

WHEREAS, the Council considered on June 23, 2003, the preliminary concept plan and the initial cost projections; and

 

WHEREAS, the Council considered on September 8, 2003, revised concept plans and revised cost projections; and

 

WHEREAS, the Council has considered potential cost reductions, additional identified costs and potential revenues;

 

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED by the Council of the Town of Chapel Hill that a preliminary budget for the Public Works portion of the Town Operations Center of $20,275,000 after refund of $460,000 in sales tax, is hereby adopted.

 

This the 27th day of October, 2003.


 

ATTACHMENT 1

 

Comparison of Public Works Operations Facility Projected Costs

 

 

††† September 8, 2003††††††† October 27, 2003†††††††††† October 27, 2003

†††††††††††† 15-Year Plan††††††††††††††††††† $20m Plan†††††††† RECOMMENDED

 

Construction††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $18,774,300††††††††††††††† $15,083,140†††††††††††††††††† $17,264,754

Equipment†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 2,347,900††††††††††††††††††† 1,719,080†††††††††††††††††††††† 1,719,080

††††††††††† Subtotal (a)††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $21,122,200††††††††††††††† $16,802,220†††††††††††††††††† $18,983,834

 

Off-site (utilities, roads, signals)††††††††††††††††† 1,844,400†††††††††††††††† $ 1,626,900†††††††††††††††††††††† 1,626,900

Demolition††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 126,500†††††††††††††††††††††† 126,500††††††††††††††††††††††††† 126,500

††††††††††† Subtotal (b)††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $23,093,100††††††††††††††† $18,555,620†††††††††††††††††† $20,737,234

10% Design, value engineering,

testing††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 2,309,310††††††††††††††††††† 1,855,560†††††††††††††††††††††† 2,073,723

††††††††††† Subtotal (c)††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $25,402,410††††††††††††††† $20,411,180†††††††††††††††††† $22,810,957

 

1% for Art††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $254,021†††††††††††††††††††††† 204,118 †††††††††††††††††††††††† 228,109

††††††††††† Subtotal (e)$††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 25,656,431††††††††††††††† $20,615,298†††††††††††††††††† $23,039,066

 

Relocation expense†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 100,000†††††††††††††††††††††† $44,000††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 44,000

Removal of underground tanks††††††††††††††††††††††† 75,400†††††††††††††††††††††††† 75,400††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 75,400

††††††††††† Subtotal (f)†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $25,831,831††††††††††††††† $20,734,698†††††††††††††††††† $23,158,466

 

Public Housing Maintenance*††††††††††††††††††† 1,120,400†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $1,120,400

††††††††††† Subtotal (g)†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $26,952,231†††††††††††††††† $24,278,866

 

Sales Tax Refund††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -599,000††††††††††††††††††† -460,000†††††††††††††††††††††† -540,700

††††††††††† TOTAL††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† $26,353,230††††††††††††††† $20,274,698†††††††††††††††††† $23,738,166

 

Rounded TOTAL†††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††† $26,353,000†††††††††††††† $20,275,000†††††††††††††† ††† $23,738,000

 

 

*including 10% for design, value engineering and testing


ATTACHMENT 2

 

Comparison of Elements of Sustainable Development and Environmental Sensitivity Among Four Plans

 

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† Mgrís

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 30-Year15-Year$20mRecíd

Element††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† Plan†††† Plan†††† Plan†††† Plan

 

Building orientation to accommodate daylighting, with all††† o††††††††† o††††††††† o††††††††† o

buildings on an east-west axis allowing for north- and south-

facing windows

Clerestory windows for daylighting, allowing work spaces †† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

to be lit by natural light, saving electricity and improving

working conditions

Compressed natural gas (CNG) filling station necessary ††††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

to accommodate continued growth of Townís fleet of CNG

vehicles and encouraging other agencies to use alternative

to gasoline and diesel and encouraging growth of supply

network†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

E-85 Ethanol underground fuel storage tank allows use†††††††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷ †††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷

of alternative fuels by Town and other public agencies

High Performance Guidelines of Triangle J include locally ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

tested aspects of national guidelines for sustainable building

Landscaped buffers beyond LUMO requirements to †††††††††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

satisfy request of neighbors and recommendations of

Community Design Commission for enhanced screening

Landscaping beyond LUMO requirements, outside of ††††††††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

buffers would set example for other developers, improve

public image and work environment

Potential* for photovoltaic cells which would create electricity, ††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

reducing demand from Piedmont Electric and reducing on-going

cost of power to the Town

Potential* for solar arrays to heat water, reducing used of non-

renewable energy and cost of power ††† to heat water††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

Potential* geothermal heating and cooling system would use †††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

constant temperature of underground to provide both heating and

cooling without use of power beyond power needs of pumps

Recycling of water in brushless car/ truck wash would reduce ††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

amount of water needed to wash cars and small trucks compared

to individuals with a hose

 


 

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Mgrís

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 30-Year15-Year$20mRecíd

Element††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Plan†††† Plan†††† Plan†††† Plan

 

Stormwater Management

†††† Bioretention/rain garden areas to improve infiltration,††††† †††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷

†††† reduce run-off and improve water quality

†††† Infiltration beds to improve infiltration, reduce run-off and ÷††††††††† X†††††††† X†††††††† X

††††† improve water quality

†††† Open ditches for improved infiltration†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷

††† Permeable asphalt over a prepared soil and gravel bed †††††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† [s1] ÷

†††† increases infiltrations of stormwater, decreases run-off,

†††† erosion and sedimentation and improves water quality

†††† Permeable concrete over a prepared soil and gravel bed††††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† X†††††††† X

†††† increases absorption of stormwater, decreases run-off,

†††† erosion and sedimentation, and increases water quality;

†††† is more expensive and more durable than permeable asphalt

†††† Wet ponds to reduce velocity of run-off and allow†††††††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷

†††† precipitation of sediment, reduce erosion and

†††† sedimentation and improve water quality

Underground cisterns to collect rainwater for use in irrigation, ††††††† ÷††††††††† ÷††††††††† X†††††††† ÷

flushing toilets and, perhaps, washing vehicles

 

*An allocation for high performance elements will provide for inclusion of these items if further design and value engineering indicate they would be advantageous

 

 


 [s1]